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What's the Relationship Between Bees and Food?

What's the Relationship Between Bees and Food?


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Not all flowers need honeybees. The majority of plants can be pollinated by other insects (like the other 20,000 types of bees), butterflies, and birds. The carpenter bees that bore into your deck and the sweat bees clinging to the inside of your elbow are just two types of bees that contribute to the pollination of our food system. Thousands of insects perform the same job as honeybees, but there is no equal to honeybees—they're the workhorses of the pollination world.

Most types of bees live by themselves or in groups smaller than 10, while a single honeybee colony will contain nearly 70,000 honeybees in mid-summer. A honeybee colony can send out tens of thousands of pollinators every day, creating a huge impact on an area's food system.

The problem is that honeybees can’t survive on a farm that contains only one crop, also known as a monoculture farm. While the one crop may be nutritious, it isn’t the diverse diet a honeybee needs to survive. It’s like going to a grocery store all year, but only buying apples. As nutritious as apples are, you need a variety of nutrients to survive, and they can’t be found in apples alone.

Honeybees can’t survive on a monoculture farm year-round, so colonies are moved from farm to farm, transported on semitrucks elsewhere (and, sadly, sometimes they crash) when the flowers nearby stop blooming. To honeybees, the monoculture farm is the “Land of Milk and Honey” for 2 weeks, then turns into a food desert for the remaining 50 weeks of the year. It's a death sentence to any colony unless moved to a more desirable place for bees to forage.

Each year, the Bee Informed Partnership conducts a national survey to help us better understand what management techniques are helping and hurting our bees. To give you an idea of the percentage of bees being trucked around the country, this is the ratio from 2014:

3% of beekeepers (about 200) in the U.S. are migratory beekeepers

Migratory beekeepers own 76% of the managed colonies in the United States

Our 6,717 backyard beekeepers only manage 24% of our country's beesHoly cow, that is a significant percentage of our honeybees being stressed by moving around the country constantly. On the other hand, if we didn’t have migratory beekeepers trucking their bees around, we would not have a food supply. The mono-crop farm system our country uses could not survive without commercial beekeepers bringing in bees. It’s an unfortunate cycle, but our food supply and the success of our commercial beekeepers are directly related.

What does this mean, exactly? If our country's monoculture farms or our commercial beekeepers fail, we can't enjoy almonds, apples, asparagus, avocados, broccoli, blueberries, or onions. All of those crops are 90-100% dependent on our honeybees.

Adam Hickman works in the Cooking Light Test Kitchen and as a beekeeper in Birmingham, founding Foxhound Bee Company in 2014.


Can Mason Bees Save Us?

Food writer Jill Lightner, co-author of Mason Bee Revolution, talks about the gentle, gregarious mason bee.

By now you’ve likely heard the bad news about honey bees. Populations have declined precipitously in the U.S. over the past few years, due to a combination of factors including pests, pathogens and pesticide use—so much so that beekeepers in some states have formed lobbyist groups to help draw attention to the problem. The shrinking number of honey bees is a problem, because pollinators are essential for agriculture, and honey bees pollinate an estimated $15 billion of U.S. crops each year.

Honey bees are only one of 20,000 bee species on the planet, however, and a diversified bee portfolio could go a long way in helping ensure the security of our food systems. At least that’s part of the argument in Mason Bee Revolution: How the Hardest Working Bee Can Save Our Planet One Backyard at a Time, a primer on how gentle, productive pollinators like mason bees could make a huge difference in the way we approach agriculture. The book is co-authored by food writer Jill Lightner and Dave Hunter, a longtime mason bee enthusiast, founder of the Orchard Bee Association, and owner of Crown Bee, a company that helps people raise mason bees.

F&W partner Civil Eats talked with Lightner about the book, why we should start paying attention to mason bees, and what she learned when she started raising them in her own backyard.

What makes mason bees special?
In a weird way, they’re a great role model. They don’t need much to live well. They’re not aggressive little jerks like yellow jackets. They work hard, but seem pretty relaxed about what they do all day long, like maybe it’s even fun. And they have this amazing side benefit for humans, of pollinating fruit trees more effectively— probably better than honey bees—than any other species on earth.

What’s their relationship to leafcutter bees, which are also mentioned in the book?
Well, these two kinds of bees don’t have a direct relationship—they’re not even in the garden at the same time. But, they fulfill similar roles during their different seasons. Mason bees are gentle, gregarious, solitary bees that like cool temperatures and pollinate fruit trees in the early spring, when it’s around 50 degrees. Leafcutter bees are gentle, gregarious, solitary bees that like it hotter𠅊round 70 degrees𠅊nd they are great little pollinators for summer vegetable gardens. So they’re both potentially useful for backyard gardeners and larger scale farmers, and the same people might keep both, but they don’t actually hang out.

I like that you use terms like “gregarious” to talk about bees—like they have their own personalities.
In beekeeping terms, gentle means they don’t defend their homes by stinging gregarious means they live happily right next door to their solitary bee neighbors, like people in apartments. So they’re both great for backyard gardeners.

If mason and leafcutter bees are so great, why do honey bees get all the attention?
Because honey. Duh! Okay, aside from that seriously delicious by-product, there are other reasons.

As an industry, honey alone is creeping up to about $400 million in the U.S. each year, and that is only a side business for many companies. Honey bee hives are fairly simple to move, so individual farmers don’t have to deal with beekeeping practices. The bees are trucked in right when they’re needed, they work really quickly (they’re crazy-efficient at collecting pollen), and then they’re back on the truck moving to the next orchard. This insect migratory labor system works perfectly with monocropping methods in large-scale orchards. It has also helped wreak havoc, as we’ve seen in the headlines, when mobile hives spread their parasites and diseases around multiple orchards and even states very quickly.

The dollar value placed on [honey bees’] pollinating utterly dwarfs the dollar value of their honey. There are a number of ways to calculate the value, but we’re talking between $14 and $29 billion per year. When they’re unhealthy, and the costs for the pollinating services increase overall costs for farmers, we notice pretty quickly, at every level of food production.

Considering that there are about 20,000 bee species on our planet, it’s unfortunate that we’ve grown to depend on a single one for so much of our food. If we could even broaden that number from one species to four or five, the food system could look a lot different.

I’ve heard all these dire things about how the honey bee colony will collapse and society as we know it will soon follow. Can mason bees really help keep us back from the brink of oblivion?
Mason bees can definitely help with fruit and nut production. Solitary bees don’t live in colonies, so they don’t have Colony Collapse Disorder. But, they can struggle from toxic chemicals, diseases or a lack of water just like all creatures.

One of the things I think is most exciting about them as far as their use to humans is how they pollinate. Honey bees are like the slightly compulsive coworker—the bees that collect pollen pick one branch, work over it really methodically and pack up the pollen into little �skets” on their legs. Once their pollen baskets are full, they fly back to the hive, drop it off, and return to the same branch they were working on, right where they left off.

Mason bees are easily distracted and their fuzzy bellies are where they collect pollen. They have no apparent system in the orchard, and they drop pollen everywhere. They’re terrible at collecting it (which is fine, they don’t need much) but they’re great at spreading pollen all over the orchard, which is right where people who eat fruit would like the pollen to stay. When you read that the almond industry needs 1.7 million hives for a few weeks each spring, and combine that astonishing number with stats like 44 percent colony die-off each year, mason bees feel like an immediately useful addition to orchards, if farmers are willing to give 𠆞m a shot.

There hasn’t been too much research into this yet, but it appears that honey bees and mason bees react differently to different types of chemicals. Neonicotinoids draw a lot of justifiable attention, but there are other pesticides that are also terribly damaging. If a farmer or home gardener decides to swap one serious chemical for another to protect honey bees, she might be doing new harm to other species of pollinator.

Find out the cost of raising your own mason bees and read the rest of the interview on Civil Eats.


Symbiosis – Relationships of Flowers and Bees

The relationship between bees and flowers is called symbiosis.

Symbiosis: A relationship between two organisms in which the organisms benefit from one another.

How Bees Benefit Flowers.

Bees pollinate flowers, which means they transfer the pollen made by one flower of one plant to the flower of another plant. Bees do not purposely do this. Actually, the bees are trying to collect the pollen to take back to their hives. In the process of going from one flower to another as they collect pollen, some pollen is picked up from one flower and accidentally dropped on another flower. Pollination results in the formation of seeds.

In the photo, the bee has pollen covering its whole body. The yellow pollen makes the bee appear to be yellow.

How Flowers Benefit Bees

Flowers produce pollen, which bees use as food. Pollen provides the nutrients that bees need. Besides honey that bees make, pollen is the only food that bees eat.


Not Quite So Sweet: Hemp & the Honeybee

Recent reports have argued that hemp may be able to help struggling honeybee populations. But over a decade after news of their decline first broke, what’s hurting the pollinating powerhouses remains complicated.

A funny thing happened in November 2006.

David Hackenberg, a Pennsylvania beekeeper tending to his hives in Florida, went on a routine check. What he found was startling: After opening up his hives, he discovered that there were very few honeybees present, which was an abnormality. He checked around the hives, but couldn’t find any perished bees — another abnormality.

Hackenberg’s discovery alerted beekeepers in the United States of a serious — and potentially catastrophic — problem that was later named colony collapse disorder (CCD). But the phenomenon wasn’t entirely new. It had happened sporadically throughout history, though in Europe in the mid-1990s it had started to occur with startling frequency.

But somehow, news of what was happening in Europe had been largely ignored, until U.S. beekeepers like Hackenberg reported their colonies were collapsing too. Once the problem was on U.S. soil, it was finally considered a problem. Print and television media quickly picked up the story. Alarm bells rang.

The American public soon found out that honeybees, apart from simply creating something delicious, are important. As in our entire food production system is dependent on them important. The American Beekeeping Federation estimates that honeybees contribute $20 billion to the value of U.S. agriculture annually through increased yields and superior-quality harvests. And if they did in fact disappear, we’d be, well, up a certain creek without a paddle.

So, a decade later, everything’s okay, right?

Well, the rapid decline of the honeybee has forced us to pay attention. Researchers and beekeepers are searching for solutions — sometimes finding answers, sometimes more questions.

What they’ve found paints a complicated picture of what’s affecting honeybees. The fate of the honeybee may be tied to the way in which we’ve altered our environment to suit the needs of a ballooning human population, as well as diseases and pests that can more effectively target honeybees already suffering from poor health related to habitat loss.

But with knowledge comes the power to act. By reengineering our current environment into one that is healthier for pollinators, we can change the honeybee narrative. Some feel hemp offers an opportunity to help provide a solution. But in order to seize that opportunity, we need to think about how and what types of hemp we are growing as the money pours into our post-Farm Bill world.

Identifying the Culprit

In the immediate aftermath of the CCD crisis, theories abounded as to what the cause was. Some were the usual ideas put forth in times of uncertainty: a government experiment gone wrong, Russian sabotage, aliens, the rapture.

But the most ardently discussed (and much more plausible) cause for the phenomenon revolved around a class of pesticides known as neonicotinoids. Initially, the amount of evidence supporting their role in CCD was strong enough that several European governments banned specific neonicotinoids thought to be causing CCD.

While individual states have restricted the use of neonicotinoids, on a federal level the U.S. has failed to act in any meaningful way.

“People always ask me, ‘What’s killing the bees?’ I say, ‘It’s not one thing, it’s everything.’” — Nick French

For much of the public, the story of the honeybee ends there: Honeybees are threatened and pesticides are the culprit. In a way, neonicotinoids being the sole culprit would have been a best-case scenario. Eventually, under pressure from an array of lobbying groups and the public at large, we likely could have convinced our representatives to vote against the corporate interests that fund their campaigns.

But as we’ve continued to study CCD, a more complex picture — one that tells the all-too-familiar story of unintended consequences of human-caused ecosystem alteration — has appeared. Yes, neonicotinoids are bad for honeybees. But figuring out what’s causing the plight of the honeybee is, unfortunately, more complicated than simply banning certain pesticides.

“I always talk about bees, birds, bats, and butterflies, because that’s what we’re witnessing, the sixth great extinction right now,” says Nick French, owner of Colorado Hemp Honey. French sells CBD-infused hemp honey and manages about 150 colonies of honeybees on his farm in Douglas County, Colorado.

“There are lots of other species that are dying, but the ones you hear about are the bees,” French continues. “These [different species], they’re all dying off at alarming rates. And it’s a combination of things. People always ask me, ‘What’s killing the bees?’ I say, ‘It’s not one thing, it’s everything.’”

French, like many etymologists studying honeybee and insect population declinations, believes that an intensive combination of human-caused environmental factors is eroding honeybee health in general, and thus their numbers.

Illustrating the issue, French says: “Imagine a six-legged table, where each one of those legs represents a factor affecting bees. One leg is a polluted city environment. Another one is a lack of forage and genetically modified crops. Another one is for mites. Another one might be other diseases that affect bees. Some people say migratory beekeeping is to blame. Well, that table cannot stand if you pull those legs out from under it. In other words, bees cannot evolve fast enough to overcome all these different changes that are happening in the environment.”

It’s Not Just Bees That Are in Trouble

Insects, in general, are disappearing at alarming rates, scientists say.

In a study published in Science Direct in early 2019, Francisco Sánchez-Bayo, an environmental scientist and ecologist at the University of Sydney, and Kris A.G. Wyckhuys, a Belgian bioscience engineer and insect ecologist, wrote about their recent compilation of 73 historical reports detailing insect populations from around the globe.

What they found was shocking. According to the study, over 40% of global insect populations are threatened with extinction over the next few decades. Two recent studies, in particular, have scientists concerned.

Citing a 2017 study, the authors write: “A 27-year-long population monitoring study revealed a shocking 76% decline in flying insect biomass at several of Germany’s protected areas.”

And, summarizing a 2018 study, they state: “[A] recent study in rainforests of Puerto Rico has reported biomass losses between 98% and 78% for ground-foraging and canopy-dwelling arthropods over a 36-year period, with respective annual losses between 2.7% and 2.2%.”

Even if you’re an entomophobe (someone who is scared of all those creepy crawlies), that’s still bad news. Beyond pollination, insects are essential to a host of processes unique to each ecosystem that they thrive in. And many animals rely on insects as their primary or only food source. If we lose all of the insects, it will simply be one wave in a waterfall of disastrous consequences.

Honeybees, at least, have an advantage over most insects. Because they’re so essential to our food systems, we breed and reproduce them to replenish their numbers when they’re threatened. Prior to CCD, beekeepers reported losses of between 15% and 20% annually, per USDA surveys. Over the last decade, that number has roughly doubled. The falling honeybee numbers means that beekeepers are suffering a financial toll, which ripples into higher prices at the supermarket. While this population loss and price jump shouldn’t be shrugged off, beekeepers have at least been able to keep us from a complete species collapse by reproducing honeybees.

So, if we can force honeybee populations to reproduce, why are their numbers still declining?

What Can Exist Without Habitat or Food?

The issues facing honeybees are issues familiar to other insects, says Arathi Seshadri, a professor at Colorado State University who specializes in pollination and plant production.

“One thing is that when we are trying to understand what is going on with honeybees, it actually opens up a broader question,” she says. “The fact is, it’s not just honey bees, it’s actually all pollinators that are experiencing this, because the kinds of challenges that the bees are facing apply to not just this one genus, but across the board apply to a lot of beneficial insects and pollinators that are all dependent on the same kinds of things.”

In particular, Seshadri says pollinators are suffering from a lack of habitat, and subsequently, access to food.

“Wildflowers and other plants are not present anymore, either because we have eliminated them by using herbicides and chemicals, or these areas have become developed into newer agricultural areas, or they have become urbanized areas just because the human population is growing,” she says. “We are just extensively destroying the natural habitat to meet human needs.”

That synopsis aligns with what Sánchez-Bayo and Wyckhuys found. They describe the issues driving insect decline, appearing in order of what they deem importance, as habitat loss as wild areas turn into agricultural and urban land, pollution mostly from synthetic pesticides and fertilizers, diseases, and climate change.

But when it comes to honeybees, both Seshadri and French offer up plenty of hope as a side to go along with the heaps of sobering reality.

Seshadri says that everything from large-scale farming operations diversifying their crops and restoring wildflowers for pollinators to your choices in your backyard can help move the needle in the right way.

“People are becoming aware and there are several different kinds of efforts to improve pollinator habitat,” says Seshadri. “One of the things that we are trying to get across is that people usually end up blaming the chemicals. And it’s not always the chemicals that are to blame.”

She says that by planting native species in your yard, you can both provide food for pollinators and lessen your usage of water, because native plants are adapted to the environment.

Speaking about the prevalence of that idyllic, weed-free Kentucky Bluegrass, Seshadri says homeowners should challenge themselves never to use chemicals in their own backyards. “If you’re in urban areas, in your backyard, do we need chemicals at all?” she asks.

French for his part, says that he’s seen a huge increase in interest for the honeybee in his time as a beekeeper.

“What we’re seeing is that more people are getting interested in hobby beekeeping,” he says. He said that 10 years ago, when he attended Colorado state beekeeping meetings, he was “the youngest guy in the room” and the only one under 40. Now, he says younger people are getting interested in the practice.

An All-Natural Adversary

But beekeepers are still experiencing high annual losses. French says this is due in large part to the Varroa destructor mite, which — besides having a name like a comic book villain — is one of the honeybees’ greatest foes.

“It is by far the biggest threat to honeybees […] even more than the pesticides,” he says, echoing Seshadri’s claim that pesticides are more of the go-to scapegoat than the primary bee-killing agent.

“When commercial beekeepers take their bees to farms, remember, those farmers want those bees there,” French says. “They’re paying for them. So spraying things to kill them, sure, unintentionally that does happen. But they’re paying for bees to come there. They want the increase production.”

In other words, if farmers’ crops rely on pollination to increase profits and production, and they’re paying beekeepers for their services, it’s in the farmers’ interest to avoid spraying chemicals that could harm honeybees.

The rise in hobby beekeepers, at least on a theoretical level, is a good thing for the honeybee. But because the mite can easily spread from colony to colony, and beekeepers new to the space might not have the same level of knowledge or time to effectively manage their hives, French worries that an influx of hobbyists may actually increase the Varroa destructor problem.

French describes his treatment plan to halt the mite’s spread as follows: “When I treat my bees, I have some other friends that keep bees in the area. And I always tell them when I’m going to treat and we try and coordinate training. So, we kind of hit the whole area at the same time.”

French has been using some of his hives to study the interaction between honeybees and hemp. And he’s not alone. Seshadri and one of her students, Colton O’Brien, have also been researching hemp and bees to try and set out a plan for responsible pest management in the future. For both parties, the results are promising, although with some substantial caveats.

Hemp & Honeybees

It’s a promise that is repeated often throughout our emergent industry: There’s a hope that hemp can help.

In June of 2015, French set out to test how honeybees and hemp would interact. His hypothesis was that encouraging bees to pollinate a field would encourage seed production for hemp plants.

“When people told me that there was a seed shortage and hemp seed was selling for $10,000 a pound or $10 a seed, I was like, this is easy. This is what beekeepers do. We take our bees, we increase productions, and get output on crops,” he explains. “If I could help increase the seed production by one pound on the field, it definitely over pays for my services.”

French placed 12 hives on 70 acres of hemp being grown for fiber and monitored and reported his results throughout the summer.

“The bees love the pollen. They go crazy for it. But cannabis and hemp are naturally nectar-poor, meaning the plant does not produce a lot of nectar for bees,” he says. Bees require nectar to make honey for food, so as a result of the low nectar amounts in the cannabis, French says the bees “pretty much starved to death” by the end of summer. “They couldn’t produce enough honey to sustain themselves,” he says.

For plants that are wind pollinators, such as wheat, rice, and dandelions, this is normal. For commercial beekeepers that ship the hives around the country for pollination services, it simply means supplementing the bees with food — a practice widely used, but which some blame for poor honeybee health.

In other words, honeybees can help hemp farmers increase production, but the bees can’t live solely on hemp.

However, hemp can play a role in helping pollinators, says Seshadri. Her student O’Brien was working in the field, she says, when he noticed an abundance of wild bees and honeybees on flowering hemp plants. His curiosity piqued, he spoke with Seshadri and they decided to set up a study for the following summer to investigate the relationship between bees and hemp.

Their results yielded evidence of a wide variety of pollinators interacting with the hemp, something encouraging despite the lack of nectar produced.

“Male hemp comes to flower around August or September, which is really a crucial time for a lot of pollinators, because they’re kind of heading towards the end of the season,” she explains.

Despite not getting nectar from hemp plants, bees do harvest pollen, which is protein-rich and essential for larva development. During the late summer months in Colorado, very few plants or crops that provide nutrition are in their flowering stage.

“So that’s what makes hemp really stand out. In Colorado, it fits into the whole agriculture system by providing pollen at that crucial time in the season,” says Seshadri.

For Seshadri, the timeliness of hemp’s flowering stage, combined with the potential of a new crop that we can study before developing pest management strategies, makes the hemp-honeybee relationship an exciting one.

The distinction is, however, that the hemp can’t be feminized in order to provide pollen for the bees. With the unprecedented amount of money flowing into the CBD space post-legalization, it’s a fair bet we’ll see a massive increase in the acreage of hemp planted for CBD this year, which involves female hemp plants producing high-CBD flower instead of male hemp plants releasing pollen.

And therein lies the rub. While hemp and honeybees appear to offer each other something that can be mutually beneficial, if new investment money turns hemp into simply another monoculture crop that isn’t releasing pollen, hemp could be part of the problem for honeybees, not a part of the solution.

When it comes to recognizing and acting on the myriad problems that affect pollinators, the needle is trending in the right way, says Seshadri. But that doesn’t mean we’re in the clear.

“I don’t want anybody to sit back and relax and say, ‘OK, we did our job.’ I don’t want to scare people and say bees are disappearing, but I don’t want to say that everything is okay, just move on,” she says. “I want people to realize that every action we take has a consequence.”

So while there’s hope that hemp can help mitigate some of the issues influencing the honeybee crisis, the plant’s role will be largely a supporting one. Just as a multitude of problems are affecting the bees, like so many legs of a table, a multitude of solutions are needed to save them.

This article was originally published in the print edition of Hemp magazine.


Bees

You probably know a bee when you see one. But when it&rsquos stacked up against a hornet or wasp, it can be a little tougher to know what you&rsquore dealing with.

What are the most common bee species in the U.S.?

The most common types of bees you&rsquore likely to stumble across are honey bees, carpenter bees, and bumble bees, says board-certified entomologist Glen Ramsey, senior technical services manager at Orkin. &ldquoAnother type of bee that may be seen in open areas of yards during the spring are solitary, ground-nesting bees,&rdquo Ramsey says.

What do bees look like?

&ldquoBumble bees and carpenter bees are robust insects that are rounder in shape and commonly black and yellow in color,&rdquo Nancy Troyano, Ph.D., board-certified entomologist and director of operations education and training for Western Exterminator Company. &ldquoHoney bees are banded orange-yellow and brown to black in color, but also hairy in appearance.&rdquo

Honey bees are likely the most common type of bee you&rsquoll come into contact with, entomologist Roberto M. Pereira, Ph.D., an insect research scientist with the University of Florida. &ldquoThey look fuzzy,&rdquo he says. &ldquoThey have a lot of hairs covering their body to help them collect pollen.&rdquo

Bees usually range in size from a quarter of an inch to up to an inch long, Ramsey says.

Where can you find bees?

It depends on what kind of bee you&rsquore talking about. Honey bees like to build hives in hollow trees, while bumble bees will nest in cavities like abandoned rodent burrows,&rdquo Troyano says. &ldquoBoth can be seen on flowers as they forage for nectar,&rdquo she says.

Carpenter bees tend to nest in a &ldquowide variety of wood,&rdquo including partially decayed trees or in structural timber that is exposed, Troyano says. They also like wood that has an unpainted surface.

Can bees hurt you?

Most of them can. &ldquoBee stings typically result in immediate pain and localized reaction of mild swelling, redness, and itching at the site of the sting,&rdquo Troyano says. &ldquoHowever, for a person with allergies to bee stings, even one sting can be life threatening.&rdquo

When a bee stings you, its stinger detaches and continues to pump venom into you until you remove it, which doesn&rsquot feel good, Pereira says. The pain doesn&rsquot last forever, but a sting will usually cause swelling and itching before it all fades.

Worth noting: Honey bees typically die after they sting a person, and ground-nesting bees &ldquoare not aggressive,&rdquo so the odds of being stung by one are slim, Ramsey says.


Potato Chips vs. Corn Chips: What’s Worse?

Which is worse, potato chips or corn chips? Find out.

Timestamps
0:00 Potato chips vs. corn chips: what’s worse?
0:40 Nutrition of potato chips and corn chips compared
3:30 Which one is better?
3:43 Keto recipe channel promo

In this video, we’re going to compare potato chips and corn chips—which is worse? Let’s break down the nutrients of both types of chips.

Potato chips (1oz):
Calories – 160
Total fat – 10g
Sodium – 170mg
Potassium – 350mg
Carbs – 15g
Fiber – 1g
Net carbs – 14g
Sugar – less than 1g
Vegetable oils – corn, sunflower, and canola (+ salt)

Corn chips (1oz):
Calories – 140
Total fat – 7g
Sodium – 115mg
Potassium – 0
Carbs – 19g
Fiber – 1g
Net carbs – 18g
Sugar – less than 1g
Vegetable oils – corn, sunflower, and canola (+ salt)

Both chips contain a lot of carbs and GMOs. Potato chips contain fewer carbs and more fat. Potato chips also contain a lot of potassium.

Overall, potato chips are the winner. However, if you’re on keto, you want to avoid both of these altogether.

Dr. Eric Berg DC Bio:
Dr. Berg, age 55, is a chiropractor who specializes in Healthy Ketosis & Intermittent Fasting. He is the author of the best-selling book The Healthy Keto Plan, and is the Director of Dr. Berg Nutritionals. He no longer practices, but focuses on health education through social media.

Follow us on FACEBOOK: fb.me/DrEricBerg

Send a Message to his team: m.me/DrEricBerg

Disclaimer:
Dr. Eric Berg received his Doctor of Chiropractic degree from Palmer College of Chiropractic in 1988. His use of “doctor” or “Dr.” in relation to himself solely refers to that degree. Dr. Berg is a licensed chiropractor in Virginia, California, and Louisiana, but he no longer practices chiropractic in any state and does not see patients so he can focus on educating people as a full time activity, yet he maintains an active license. This video is for general informational purposes only. It should not be used to self-diagnose and it is not a substitute for a medical exam, cure, treatment, diagnosis, and prescription or recommendation. It does not create a doctor-patient relationship between Dr. Berg and you. You should not make any change in your health regimen or diet before first consulting a physician and obtaining a medical exam, diagnosis, and recommendation. Always seek the advice of a physician or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. The Health & Wellness, Dr. Berg Nutritionals and Dr. Eric Berg, D.C. are not liable or responsible for any advice, course of treatment, diagnosis or any other information, services or product you obtain through this video or site.

Thanks for watching. I hope this video helped give you a clear comparison of potato chips vs. corn chips. See you in the next video.
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An Introduction to Honey Bee Biology

Honey bee colonies contain three distinct types, or castes, of individuals. Each hive contains a single female queen, tens of thousands of female workers, and anywhere from several hundred to several thousand male drones during the spring and summer months.

Honey Bee Castes: Queen Bees

Queen bees are the largest individuals in most colonies and carry out many important functions in the hive. The queen is responsible for laying a constant supply of eggs to build up and maintain the hive’s population at adequate numbers. In a good year, a queen may lay as many as 200,000 eggs!

The queen also produces chemicals called pheromones that control and organize many of the behaviors of her colony. Each queen has her own distinct pheromone profile, which allows her colony to recognize her, defend her and meet her needs to keep the hive safe and strong.

Honey Bee Castes: Worker Bees

Worker bees are by far the most numerous caste in hives and, as their name implies, carry out all of the work needed to keep the colony fed and healthy. During their first days as mature adults, workers tend to perform tasks inside the hive, such as cleaning and capping cells.

As they mature, worker bees begin to perform more tasks inside the hive, including feeding the queen and developing brood, drawing out new comb, and managing food stores. The oldest and most experienced workers tend to perform the most dangerous chores: guarding the hive against intruders and foraging outside the hive for pollen and nectar.

Honey Bee Castes: Drone Bees

The only males found in the hive, drones perform only one task during their lifetime: mating with new queens. When a drone reaches sexual maturity at about two weeks of age, he begins taking mating flights. These flights usually take place in spring and summer afternoons and last about 30 minutes.

Newly matured queens and drones from several hives typically join in these flights. In most instances, the queens mate with multiple drones and store the drones’ sperm in an organ called the spermatheca. The queen will then use this stored genetic material to fertilize her eggs for the rest of her life.


Grades 6-8
Explore the role of pollinators in the ecosystems they are a part of. In this interactive lesson, develop a written response to one of three questions about the importance of honeybees. Gather evidence from reading assignments and video segments about Coal Country BeeWorks’ efforts to reclaim surface mining sites.

Bees face lots of challenges – from habitat loss, to climate change, to pesticides used in agriculture and beyond. If you’re interested in helping protect the bees, and learn more about how they play a key role in our ecosystem, check out these local organizations!


This Year's Rosh Hashanah Food Is Especially Poignant, No?

Cheers&mdashlike, really cheers&mdashto 5781.

I have always been quite loud about my Judaism, though I've also always made attempts to tamp down how deeply being Jewish is ingrained in me. "Haha, my hair!" this and "my mom makes so much food around the holidays" that&mdashyou know! The kind of joking about something really important to you that you feel endears you to others.

Something I've also been quite loud about is my love for the high holy day of Rosh Hashanah, which is the celebration marking the beginning of a new year per the Jewish calendar. I've never really understood what it is that connects me so much to this particular holiday. (I am, after all, a big proponent of being in bed by 12:01 a.m. on New Year's&mdashit's really just a ploy to keep Ryan Seacrest rich, you guys!). But I have always rushed home to help my mom prepare absurd amounts of sweet food for the dozens of guests we unfailingly have over, and I earnestly wish all of my friends a happy new year around this time while asking if they have apples and honey on hand. I never understood why I cared at all. until now.

As you may or may not have heard, 2020 isn't great! None of us are sleeping because of the continued political, social, and economic crises our country is facing and&mdashon a more micro, and, somehow, a more macro scale&mdashI can't go home to celebrate Rosh Hashanah with my family this year for fear of transmitting a crazy killer silent virus to my parents.

And yet I found myself this week planning a very extensive and extremely rooted-in-tradition holiday meal with my husband in an attempt to combat that heavy sadness. Round braided challah! Pomegranate seeds that are way too expensive to justify buying otherwise! And so, so many apples and honey.

The food of this holiday is entrenched in the idea of moving forward (again, as you may or may not have heard, Jews are pretttty intent on living in the past a lot of the time, so this is huge!) and of providing hope for what's to come. Every part of the meal is coated in an extra layer of sweetness for the sheer positivity of it all. A clean and optimistic edible slate for a new year, if you will! And I'm going all the way in.

I just now started with a challah, which I've somehow never attempted before in my life. Jews typically eat that straightforward braided challah you saw all over Instagram in weeks one-through-eight of the pandemic, but on Rosh Hashanah, the sweet bread is meant to be braided into a round loaf. The circular loaf is meant to be a reminder of the unending cycle of life&mdashlife begets more life, etc., etc. (Oh god, I don't know, I'm not that Jewish!!) You wrap it all up into a beautiful dough ball so that you can't tell where you began and where you ended, but you do have to stop and think about how you're affecting the rest of the loaf (and the people who also want to eat it) when you dive right into the middle.

I have spent so much time thinking about how my actions affect others this year, and somehow even more time being upset about how others' decisions, particularly in the middle of a fucking pandemic on a burning planet, affect mine. It's enough to make you want to rip right into the middle of a gorgeous lumpy bread you just spent hours baking. until you remember that the way out of *gestures helplessly* all of this is through it with the help of those around you. We can only continue perpetuating that whole cycle (I guess by this point I'm talking about life on Earth?? I've lost track of the metaphor honestly.) by taking a beat and thinking about others. Big round challah energy 2020.

The dumb-expensive pomegranate seeds are also meant to be an ingestible way of reminding us to think outside of ourselves. Jews who paid attention in Hebrew school will tell you the reason there are 613 mizvot (good deeds commanded by the Torah) is because that's how many seeds were found in pomegranates way back in. the days? Either way, the modern-day interpretation is that if you eat pomegranate seeds now, at the beginning of a new year, you're literally absorbing merits moving forward. And while that's all well and good, it's also an acknowledgment that you want to do better and be better, yeah? Like, I spent all that money I could have used for more black & white cookies on gritty little freshly oxidized blood-colored seeds because I want more than just the anti-aging properties. I want to know that what's coming in the days, months, and oh god, years, to come is as good as it can be because I did all I could to make it that way, not because I sat back and watched it happen. I want to eat those fucking seeds and do some fucking good, not eat those fucking seeds and continue to complain about how much fucking money I spent. which is probably how I behaved until late 2019, to be honest.

Which leads me to what most other casual Jews (and casual gentiles, I guess?) know the holiday for: the drenching of sweet apples into even sweeter honey, a tradition I will never not associate with my dad and his lopsided kippah yelling "TO A SWEET NEW YEAR!" Oh god, I'm going to cry now. Because there have been fleeting moments of sweetness this year, but they've mostly been borne of luck and the new perspective I continue to work toward. They've not really been borne of the consequences of my behaviors which all of these other foods I'm now sitting in a pile of remind me I would like to change. Many point to the relationship between bees and honey (as in, bees can sting and hurt, but they can also produce the joy that is honey) as another example of how the choices we make can impact others so hard that it's imperative we think about even the smallest of things before making decisions. Like, I don't know, wearing a fucking mask or doing the bare minimum and being kind to someone who doesn't look like you.

. I told you it just hits different this year!

I didn't mean for this to turn into a How Jews Do New Years 101 explainer or for it to be an overly emotional plea to just be a better person because, if not, I'm pretty confident we're all going to die. I really didn't! But maybe you'll get something out of it either way and be nicer to. Jewish people? I don't know. All I know is I am wishing everyone a safe and healthy new year (no matter when you celebrate) filled with overly sweet food that's practically nine months pregnant with heavy-handed symbolism. It's the very best kind.


He Said, She Said, They Said: What’s the Final Verdict on the Wildly Popular Flow Hive?

While many established beekeepers were resistant to these new-fangled Australian hives, they're likely coming to a farm, backyard, or rooftop near you soon.

On their website, the Flow Hive had been advertised by their inventors to provide honey “on tap” in a way that was “less stressful for the bees” than traditional methods. Designed with parts that could be incorporated into a conventional stacked Langstroth hive, it includes plastic frames that – with the insertion of a giant-sized Allen wrench – can be shifted to extract honey through special tubing. For a while last February, the Flow Hive enjoyed unprecedented celebrity across the Internet thanks to a video, designed to promote the new invention and raise money for its development, that went viral, racking up more than two million views on YouTube.

But it wasn’t until novice urban beekeeper Jason Allen-Rouman posted about his new hive on a beekeeping social media site that he realized how angry some veteran beekeepers were about the topic. “Oh my God, the hostility,” he says. “People were emotionally invested in this.”

Some beekeepers worried that the Flow Hive would promote sloppy beekeeping and encourage bee-health problems at a time when bees are experiencing tremendous declines. Others were offended by promotions for the Flow Hive, feeling they depicted honey harvesting as disrespectful and antagonistic to the bees.

Many wondered if the new plastic frame-splitting design would be unhealthy for the bees, crush worker bees as they filled honeycomb cells, or kill the babies, known as brood.

On the blog Root Simple, author Erik Knutzen called the Flow Hive a “solution in search of a problem” and admonished its inventors for encouraging an exploitive relationship with bees. He expressed concerns that the new hive might encourage a sort of greediness among new beekeepers.

“Conceptually, the idea that a beehive is like a beer keg you can tap is troublesome,” Knutzen writes in a post from February 23, 2015. “A beehive is a living thing, not a machine for our exploitation. I’m a natural beekeeper and feel that honey harvests must be done with caution and respect. To us, beekeeping is, at the risk of sounding a little melodramatic – a sacred vocation. We are in relationship with our backyard hive, and feel our role is to support them, and to very occasionally accept the gift of excess honey… What we get we consider precious, and use for medicine more than sweetening.”

This model of the Flow Hive includes a built-in observation feature by opening a side door a beekeeper can observe their bees at work inside any time. Alison Gillespie

Side view of the see-through plastic frames inside of a Flow Hive super. At the bottom, channels can be uncapped for releasing honey without removing the frames. Alison Gillespie

It didn’t help that the Flow Hive company’s Indiegogo fundraising campaign had broken records by making $12.2 million dollars in just three months. At beekeeping events around the country, even beekeepers who didn’t have strong feelings about the new hive design questioned why a company that originally sought $70,000 for design development needed that much cash. Critics complained that the money might be better used on academic bee research.

Even beekeepers who didn’t have strong feelings about the new hive design questioned why a company that originally sought $70,000 for design development needed that much cash.

In the beginning, writer Rusty Burlew was among the skeptics. As a beekeeping instructor, columnist for the British Beekeepers Association magazine Bee Craft, and the executive director of the Native Bee Conservancy, she’s become well known for her sometimes caustic opinions on beekeeping trends and fads. So when the Flow Hive video went viral, friends and family kept sending her links, asking what she thought of it. She wanted to ignore the whole thing, but after a while couldn’t resist checking it out.

She didn’t like what she saw.

“In the early days especially, the Flow was marketed as a way to harvest honey without harming the bees, or bothering the bees, or the killing the bees, or even dealing with bees,” Burlew says via email. “The idea they conveyed was you just bought this thing, put the bees inside, and then turned the crank when you wanted honey.” She was not impressed, and wrote posts on her blog Honey Bee Suite saying so, here and here.

Bees demand a beekeeper’s vigilance and a certain time commitment in order to thrive in the current US environment. Leaving them to fight off new pathogens and pests on their own, it’s argued, would be akin to getting a new puppy and not feeding or house-training it.

Cedar Anderson, one of the inventors of the Flow Hive, says he heard this feedback loud and clear within a day or so of going public, and immediately changed how the product was marketed on the website. He hadn’t meant for his invention to encourage anyone to be irresponsible.

“I put up stuff saying that all we’re going to change is the honey harvesting, and all the rest of the beekeeping stays the same,” he says in a phone interview. “You’ll still need to look out for your bees as you always have had, and you’ll still need to check for disease you’ll still get stung by your bees.” Anderson’s also been urging people to join their local beekeeping clubs to educated and has started producing a series of instructional videos for new beekeepers, which should be up on his website sometime in the coming year.

That response has helped to soften some of the criticism Burlew, for example, says she now thinks of the Flow Hive as simply an expensive device for collecting honey, not unlike several other add-ons currently on the market for Langstroth-style supers and hives.

“Anything you can do to make it easier so that beekeepers can spend their time managing their hives rather than extracting their honey, I think that’s a good thing.”

“I think many of the people who bought the Flow will turn into competent and caring beekeepers,” she says. “There will also be those who decide bees are too much trouble and they will abandon the whole project. But that happens anyway. Probably the percentages of those who stay with it and those who quit won’t be very different from those who begin beekeeping in any other way.”

Although he hasn’t seen it in action yet, University of Maryland’s Dennis VanEnglesdorp thinks that the Flow Hive could be a great thing, if it works as promised. VanEnglesdorp was one of the first researchers to identify and document Colony Collapse Disorder ten years ago, and has worked extensively on honeybee health in the years since.

“The whole process of extraction becomes kind of arduous,” especially for small-scale beekeepers who only want a few jars of honey from their hives each year, he says. “Anything you can do to make it easier so that beekeepers can spend their time managing their hives rather than extracting their honey, I think that’s a good thing.”

Jason Allen-Rouman pulls out a frame from his new and still-unused Flow Hive in Washington, D.C.. Alison Gillespie

Back in D.C., Jason Allen-Rouman has decided he no longer has to go “underground” with his Flow Hive. His first package of bees, installed in a conventional Langstroth hive last April, is doing well, and he’s hopeful they’ll make it through the winter and that he’ll be able to incorporate the Flow Hive into the set-up next spring. He’s gotten some shouts of support from a Facebook group calling itself the “Flow Hive Optimists,” and the president of the DC Beekeepers Alliance recently stopped by, eager to get a close up look at the new invention.

Allen-Rouman likens his experience to that of any early adopter he thinks there will be some problems that may emerge as the Flow Hives get put into use, and the company will have to address those and keep improving their design, their marketing, and their product. But really, he asks, is that different from those working with any other kind of technology?

“If you are assuming that all new beekeepers are going to be bad beekeepers, I think that’s a dangerous assumption,” says Flow Hive’s Anderson. “Every beekeeper was new once, and there’s absolutely no reason why we won’t end up with a whole lot of fantastic beekeepers.”